before the mid nineteenth century

            Before the mid-nineteenth century, people in the United States ate most foods only

            in season. Drying, smoking, and salting could preserve meat for a short time, but the             availability of fresh meat, lượt thích that of fresh milk, was very limited; there was no way to

Bạn đang xem: before the mid nineteenth century

 Line     prevent spoilage. But in 1810 a French inventor named Nicolas Appert developed the

  (5)      cooking-and-sealing process of canning. And in the 1850's an American named Gail

            Borden developed a means of condensing and preserving milk. Canned goods and

            condensed milk became more common during the 1860's, but supplies remained low

            because cans had vĩ đại be made by hand. By 1880, however, inventors had fashioned

            stamping and soldering machines that mass-produced cans from tinplate. Suddenly all

 (10)      kinds of food could be preserved and bought at all times of the year.

            Other trends and inventions had also helped make it possible for Americans vĩ đại vary

            their daily diets. Growing urban populations created demand that encouraged fruit and

            vegetable farmers vĩ đại raise more produce. Railroad refrigerator cars enabled growers

            and meat packers vĩ đại ship perishables great distances and vĩ đại preserve them for longer

 (15)      periods. Thus, by the 1890's, northern đô thị dwellers could enjoy southern and western              strawberries, grapes, and tomatoes, previously available for a month at most, for up to

            six months of the year. In addition, increased use of iceboxes enabled families vĩ đại store              perishables. An easy means of producing ice commercially had been invented in the

            1870's, and by 1900 the nation had more than thở two thousand commercial ice plants,

 (20)      most of which made trang chính deliveries. The icebox became a fixture in most homes and             remained sánh until the mechanized refrigerator replaced it in the 1920's and 1930's. 

                Almost everyone now had a more diversified diet. Some people continued vĩ đại eat

            mainly foods that were heavy in starches or carbohydrates, and not everyone could

            afford meat. Nevertheless, many families could take advantage of previously

 (25)      unavailable fruits, vegetables, and dairy products vĩ đại achieve more varied fare.

            20. What does the passage mainly discuss?

               (A) Causes of food spoilage       

               (B) Commercial production of ice

               (C) Inventions that led vĩ đại changes in the American diet

               (D) Population movements in the nineteenth century

            21. The phrase “in season” in line 2 refers vĩ đại

               (A) a kind of weather

             (B) a particular time of year

               (C) an official schedule

             (D) a method of flavoring food

            22. The word “prevent” in line 4 is closest in meaning to

               (A) estimate

               (B) avoid

               (C) correct

               (D) confine

            23. During the 1860's, canned food products were

               (A) unavailable in rural areas

               (B) shipped in refrigerator cars

Xem thêm: lời bài hát proud of you

               (C) available in limited quantities

               (D) a staple part of the American diet

            24. It can be inferred that railroad refrigerator cars came into use

               (A) before 1860

               (B) before 1890

               (C) after 1900

               (D) after 1920

            25. The word “them ” in line 14 refers to

               (A) refrigerator cars

               (B) perishables

               (C) growers

               (D) distances

            26. The word “fixture” in line đôi mươi is closest in meaning to

               (A) luxury item

               (B) substance

               (C) commonplace object

               (D) mechanical device

            27. The author implies that in the 1920's and 1930's trang chính deliveries of ice

               (A) decreased in number

               (B) were on an irregular schedule

               (C) increased in cost

             (D) occurred only in the summer

            28. The word “Nevertheless” in line 24 is closest in meaning to

               (A) therefore

               (B) because

               (C) occasionally

               (D) however

            29. Which of the following types of food preservation was NOT mentioned in the passage?

               (A) Drying

               (B) Canning

               (C) Cold storage

               (D) Chemical additives

            30. Which of the following statements is supported by the passage?

               (A) Tin cans and iceboxes helped vĩ đại make many foods more widely available.

               (B) Commercial ice factories were developed by railroad owners.

Xem thêm: 10cm bằng bao nhiêu m

               (C) Most farmers in the United States raised only fruits and vegetables.

               (D) People who lived in cities demanded trang chính delivery of foods.