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Aluminium hydroxide
Unit cell ball and stick model of aluminium hydroxide
Sample of aluminium hydroxide in a vial
Preferred IUPAC name

Aluminium hydroxide

Systematic IUPAC name


Other names
  • Aluminic acid
  • Aluminic hydroxide
  • Alumanetriol
  • Aluminium(III) hydroxide
  • Aluminium hydroxide
  • Aluminium trihydroxide
  • Hydrated alumina
  • Orthoaluminic acid

CAS Number

  • 21645-51-2 check

3D model (JSmol)

  • Interactive image
  • CHEBI:33130 check
  • ChEMBL1200706 ☒
  • 8351587 check
  • DB06723
ECHA InfoCard 100.040.433 Edit this at Wikidata
  • D02416

PubChem CID

  • 10176082
RTECS number
  • BD0940000
  • 5QB0T2IUN0 check

CompTox Dashboard (EPA)

  • DTXSID2036405 Edit this at Wikidata


  • InChI=1S/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3 check

    A02AB02 (WHO) (algeldrate) ☒

  • InChI=1/Al.3H2O/h;3*1H2/q+3;;;/p-3



  • [OH-].[OH-].[OH-].[Al+3]


Chemical formula

Molar mass 78.003 g·mol−1
Appearance White amorphous powder
Density 2.42 g/cm3, solid
Melting point 300 °C (572 °F; 573 K)

Solubility in water

0.0001 g/(100 mL)

Solubility product (Ksp)

Solubility soluble in acids and alkalis
Acidity (pKa) >7
Isoelectric point 7.7

Std enthalpy of
formation fH298)

−1277 kJ·mol−1

ATC code

A02AB01 (WHO)
GHS labelling:


GHS07: Exclamation mark

Hazard statements

H319, H335

Precautionary statements

P261, P264, P271, P280, P304+P340, P305+P351+P338, P312, P337+P313
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):

LD50 (median dose)

>5000 mg/kg (rat, oral)
Safety data sheet (SDS) External MSDS
Related compounds

Other anions


Related compounds

  • Boric acid
  • Gallium(III) hydroxide
  • Indium(III) hydroxide
  • Thallium(III) hydroxide
  • Scandium(III) hydroxide
  • Sodium oxide
  • Aluminium oxide hydroxide

Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).

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Infobox references

Aluminium hydroxide, Al(OH)3, is found in nature as the mineral gibbsite (also known as hydrargillite) and its three much rarer polymorphs: bayerite, doyleite, and nordstrandite. Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric, i.e., it has both basic and acidic properties. Closely related are aluminium oxide hydroxide, AlO(OH), and aluminium oxide or alumina (Al2O3), the latter of which is also amphoteric. These compounds together are the major components of the aluminium ore bauxite. Aluminium hydroxide also forms a gelatinous precipitate in water.


Al(OH)3 is built up of double layers of hydroxyl groups with aluminium ions occupying two-thirds of the octahedral holes between the two layers.[5][6] Four polymorphs are recognized.[7] All feature layers of octahedral aluminium hydroxide units, with hydrogen bonds between the layers. The polymorphs differ in terms of the stacking of the layers. All forms of Al(OH)3 crystals are hexagonal[disputed – discuss]:

  • gibbsite is also known as γ-Al(OH)3 [8] or α-Al(OH)3[citation needed]
  • bayerite is also known as α-Al(OH)3[8] or β-alumina trihydrate[citation needed]
  • nordstrandite is also known as Al(OH)3[8]
  • doyleite

Hydrargillite, once thought lớn be aluminium hydroxide, is an aluminium phosphate. Nonetheless, both gibbsite and hydrargillite refer lớn the same polymorphism of aluminium hydroxide, with gibbsite used most commonly in the United States and hydrargillite used more often in Europe. Hydrargillite is named after the Greek words for water (hydra) and clay (argylles).


Aluminium hydroxide is amphoteric. In acid, it acts as a Brønsted–Lowry base. It neutralizes the acid, yielding a salt:[9]

3 HCl + Al(OH)3 → AlCl3 + 3 H2O

In bases, it acts as a Lewis acid by binding hydroxide ions:[9]

Al(OH)3 + OH → [Al(OH)4]


Red mud reservoirs (this one in Stade, Germany) contain the corrosive residues from the production of aluminium hydroxide.

Virtually all the aluminium hydroxide used commercially is manufactured by the Bayer process[10] which involves dissolving bauxite in sodium hydroxide at temperatures up lớn 270 °C (518 °F). The waste solid, bauxite tailings, is removed and aluminium hydroxide is precipitated from the remaining solution of sodium aluminate. This aluminium hydroxide can be converted lớn aluminium oxide or alumina by calcination.

The residue or bauxite tailings, which is mostly iron oxide, is highly caustic due lớn residual sodium hydroxide. It was historically stored in lagoons; this led lớn the Ajka alumina plant accident in 2010 in Hungary, where a dam bursting led lớn the drowning of nine people. An additional 122 sought treatment for chemical burns. The mud contaminated 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) of land and reached the Danube. While the mud was considered non-toxic due lớn low levels of heavy metals, the associated slurry had a pH of 13.[11]


Fire retardant filler[edit]

Aluminium hydroxide also finds use as a fire retardant filler for polymer applications. It is selected for these applications because it is colorless (like most polymers), inexpensive, and has good fire retardant properties.[12] Magnesium hydroxide and mixtures of huntite and hydromagnesite are used similarly.[13][14][15][16][17] It decomposes at about 180 °C (356 °F), absorbing a considerable amount of heat in the process and giving off water vapour. In addition lớn behaving as a fire retardant, it is very effective as a smoke suppressant in a wide range of polymers, most especially in polyesters, acrylics, ethylene vinyl acetate, epoxies, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and rubber.[18]

Precursor lớn Al compounds[edit]

Aluminium hydroxide is a feedstock for the manufacture of other aluminium compounds: calcined aluminas, aluminium sulfate, polyaluminium chloride, aluminium chloride, zeolites, sodium aluminate, activated alumina, and aluminium nitrate.[6]

Freshly precipitated aluminium hydroxide forms gels, which are the basis for the application of aluminium salts as flocculants in water purification. This gel crystallizes with time. Aluminium hydroxide gels can be dehydrated (e.g. using water-miscible non-aqueous solvents lượt thích ethanol) lớn khuông an amorphous aluminium hydroxide powder, which is readily soluble in acids. Heating converts it lớn activated aluminas, which are used as desiccants, adsorbent in gas purification, and catalyst supports.[12]


Under the generic name "algeldrate", aluminium hydroxide is used as an antacid in humans and animals (mainly cats and dogs). It is preferred over other alternatives such as sodium bicarbonate because Al(OH)3, being insoluble, does not increase the pH of stomach above 7 and hence, does not trigger secretion of excess acid by the stomach. Brand names include Alu-Cap, Aludrox, Gaviscon or Pepsamar. It reacts with excess acid in the stomach, reducing the acidity of the stomach nội dung,[19][20] which may relieve the symptoms of ulcers, heartburn or dyspepsia. Such products can cause constipation, because the aluminium ions inhibit the contractions of smooth muscle cells in the gastrointestinal tract, slowing peristalsis and lengthening the time needed for stool lớn pass through the colon.[21] Some such products are formulated lớn minimize such effects through the inclusion of equal concentrations of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium carbonate, which have counterbalancing laxative effects.[22]

This compound is also used lớn control hyperphosphatemia (elevated phosphate, or phosphorus, levels in the blood) in people and animals suffering from kidney failure. Normally, the kidneys filter excess phosphate out from the blood, but kidney failure can cause phosphate lớn accumulate. The aluminium salt, when ingested, binds lớn phosphate in the intestines and reduce the amount of phosphorus that can be absorbed.[23][24]

Precipitated aluminium hydroxide is included as an adjuvant in some vaccines (e.g. anthrax vaccine). One of the well-known brands of aluminium hydroxide adjuvant is Alhydrogel, made by Brenntag Biosector.[25][full citation needed][dead link] Since it absorbs protein well, it also functions lớn stabilize vaccines by preventing the proteins in the vaccine from precipitating or sticking lớn the walls of the container during storage. Aluminium hydroxide is sometimes called "alum", a term generally reserved for one of several sulfates.[citation needed]

Vaccine formulations containing aluminium hydroxide stimulate the immune system by inducing the release of uric acid, an immunological danger signal. This strongly attracts certain types of monocytes which differentiate into dendritic cells. The dendritic cells pick up the antigen, carry it lớn lymph nodes, and stimulate T cells and B cells.[26] It appears lớn contribute lớn induction of a good Th2 response, sánh is useful for immunizing against pathogens that are blocked by antibodies. However, it has little capacity lớn stimulate cellular (Th1) immune responses, important for protection against many pathogens,[27] nor is it useful when the antigen is peptide-based.[28]


In the 1960s and 1970s it was speculated that aluminium was related lớn various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease.[29][30] Since then, multiple epidemiological studies have found no connection between exposure lớn environmental or swallowed aluminium and neurological disorders, though injected aluminium was not looked at in these studies.[31][32][33]

Neural disorders were found in experiments on mice motivated by Gulf War illness (GWI). Aluminium hydroxide injected in doses equivalent lớn those administered lớn the United States military, showed increased reactive astrocytes, increased apoptosis of motor neurons and microglial proliferation within the spinal cord and cortex.[34]

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  1. ^ For solubility product: "Solubility product constants". Archived from the original on 15 June 2012. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
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  5. ^ Wells, A. F. (1975), Structural Inorganic Chemistry (4th ed.), Oxford: Clarendon Press
  6. ^ a b Evans, K. A. (1993). "Properties and uses of aluminium oxides and aluminium hydroxides". In A. J. Downs (ed.). Chemistry of aluminium, gallium, indium, and thallium (1st ed.). London; New York: Blackie Academic & Professional. ISBN 9780751401035.
  7. ^ Karamalidis, A. K.; Dzombak D. A. (2010). Surface Complexation Modeling: Gibbsite. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 15–17. ISBN 978-0-470-58768-3.
  8. ^ a b c Wefers, Karl; Misra, Chanakya (1987). Oxides and hydroxides of aluminum. Alcoa Research Laboratories. p. 2. OCLC 894928306.
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External links[edit]

  • International Chemical Safety Card 0373
  • "Some properties of aluminum hydroxide precipitated in the presence of clays", Soil Research Institute, R C Turner, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa[permanent dead link]
  • Effect of ageing on properties of polynuclear hydroxyaluminium cations
  • A second species of polynuclear hydroxyaluminium cation, its formation and some of its properties